Parts of the brain psychology gcse

Author: Created by MrSidneyStringer. Created: Mar 2, Updated: Mar 17, This lesson is designed for the Edexcel Psychology New Specification, Unit 2 Development and contains everything you could possibly need for the 1st lesson, How do early brains develop? This is a free trial lesson, if you like what there is, please check out my other resources, covering every lesson for each GCSE Psychology Unit! This package contains the whole lesson Powerpoint, two differentiated starters, lots of fully differentiated activities and differentiated worksheets, along with differentiated homework tasks!

There are lots of engaging and interesting activities, designed to keep your classes motivated, engaged and making the best progress that they can within the lesson, as well as providing plenty of opportunities for stretch and challenge. Read more. Report a problem. View more.

Lesson plan: Structures and functions of the brain: Paper 2 Section C Brain and neuropsychology

Share Email Post. Objectives covered in this lesson are as follows: Identify parts of the Brain Explain how the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain develop in the foetus.

Explain the development of the cerebellum and medulla. Challenge: Suggest ways in which Psychologists might investigate the structure of the brain.

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Edexcel Psychology (9-1) GCSE New Spec Unit 2 Lesson 1 - How do early brains develop? TRIAL LESSON

Updated resources.You have explored the fundamentals of what psychology is and how psychologists research the human mind and behavior. This lesson focuses on the biological processes that play a role in how we think, feel, react and behave. Every year, millions of people are affected by disorders of the brain and nervous system including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease, stroke, and traumatic brain injuries.

These illnesses and injuries highlight the importance of the biological bases for our behavior. In this week's lesson, we'll explore some of the basics of biological psychology. Click the links below to read the articles and resources related to each topic in this lesson. Don't worry, there is no homework to complete! Each lesson in this course is entirely self-directedwhich means that it is up to you to read and learn the materials. Good luck with today's lesson!

The area of psychology that seeks to understand how the brain affects behavior is known as biopsychology, although you may also hear this subject referred to as psychobiology or behavioral neuroscience. Neurons are the basic building blocks of life. These highly specialized cells are responsible for receiving and transmitting information from one part of the body to another. In this article, you'll learn more about how neurons function.

In order to better understand how a neuron works to transmit information throughout the body, it is essential to know the different parts of a neuron. Learn about the structure of a neuron and how neural signals are transmitted in this overview of neuron anatomy. You've seen how a cell is structured and how nerve impulses are propagated down the cell, but how does this information travel from one cell to the next?

Learn more these chemical messengers that transmit signals from one cell to the next in this overview of neurotransmitters. Neurons make up only a small part of the human body's complex communication system. The nervous system is composed of two main parts: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.

Additionally, the endocrine system plays an important role in communication. Learn more about these two important systems and the impact they have on the brain, the body and behavior in this article on the nervous and endocrine systems. Technological advances in recent years have allowed scientists to study the human brain in ways that were not possible in the past.

Learn more about the different parts of the brain and the functions that each area serves in this tour of the human brain. Congratulations, you've reached the end of lesson three! This lesson covers just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to the brain and behavior, but understanding this information establishes a solid foundation for future study.

If you feel that you have fully studied the information in this lesson, then feel free to move on to lesson four. If you are still struggling to understand or remember the material in today's lesson, I recommend coming back to review the information in a few days before you continue on to the next lesson. Are you struggling with these lessons? Be sure to check out our great selection of psychology study tipsadvice on how to take good psychology notes and some excellent strategies to help you study for psychology exams.

Ever wonder what your personality type means? Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. More in Theories. Syllabus for This Week.The brain is the most important organ in the body.

As a student of psychology, this question is trying. Both parts of the brain are well known to be equally responsible — the former for encoding, and the latter for storage — of memories. But further to this, recent research indicates that how soon you sleep after learning something can affect later recall. Have you ever answered a question incorrectly on a past paper, only to come across a similar question on your next paper and been unable to remember what the right answer actually was?

This is due to the fact that the aforementioned hippocampus takes a little while to fully ingrain information into your neocortex, so the longer you can wait before revisiting information, the better your recall will be. This has been demonstrated empirically — a transatlantic research team observedplayers in an online game, and found that gamers who left breaks in-between plays learned the rules of the game just as well as if not better than people who had played for much longerbut without any breaks.

Learning the content of what should go into an essay is one thing, and learning how to actually put it down on paper is another. Learning how to impress the examiner is another yet again. Not quite. This intuitive phenomenon results from procedural memory, which turns manual actions into automatic ones with repetition. Use your eyes. Although people do have individual differences in learning preferences, these are largely negligible in comparison to the fact that humans and in fact most vertebrates rely predominantly on vision.

This results in a much larger capacity for visual memory than any other type. The trick behind this is to form associations between the pieces of information you need to recall. The reason this technique works so well is that your brain actually a system of networks, so if you can find a reason to connect pieces of information through a common association, you can actually form new networks. You can get as creative as you like with the associations, as long as they make sense to you.

In fact, the more unusual the association, the more likely you are to remember it! The increase of students looking for tutors has increased significantly in the last de Busy Summer ahead? From the missed TV series to the Summer job, the personal statement Getting ready to go to university is a daunting task: the questions, responsibilities Log in Sign up. The Psychology of Revision — How to hack your brain.

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Spread out your work Have you ever answered a question incorrectly on a past paper, only to come across a similar question on your next paper and been unable to remember what the right answer actually was? Practise, practise, practise Learning the content of what should go into an essay is one thing, and learning how to actually put it down on paper is another. Previous Next.The revision notes cover the AQA exam board and unit new specification.

Schools get all our resources for free ; simply email us at help learndojo. The nervous system is an extremely complex network of nerve fibres and nerve cells that pass information around the body see model below outlining this.

As the nervous system is very complicated with many different functions, it is practical to divide it into sections to better understand how it works. The central nervous system coordinates incoming information and makes decisions about movement or other activities. It consists of the brain and the spinal cord.

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The peripheral nervous system PNS collects information from, and sends information to, different parts of the human body. The peripheral nervous system consists of two sections which are the somatic nervous system SNS and the autonomic nervous system ANS.

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The somatic nervous system is a network of nerve fibres running throughout the body, and sense receptors such as those in our skin, muscles and internal organs. The nerve fibres pass information to and from the CNS using sensory and motor neurons that are myelinated covered with a myelin sheath which is a fatty wrappingwhich helps the messages travel faster.

The autonomic nervous system ANS is a network of special nerves which also take information to and from the CNS but does so more slowly as the nerve fibres are not myelinated. The ANS uses information from our internal organs to coordinate our general physiological functioning while also responding directly to information such as stressful or emotional events. The functions of the nervous system The different divisions of the nervous system all have different functions.

The central nervous system coordinates incoming sensory information and responds to it by sending appropriate instructions to other parts of the nervous system.

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Thinking, memory, decision-making and language are all part of the central nervous system as it also contains our store of knowledge, habits and other forms of learning allowing us to combine past experience with current situations to make relevant decisions. The two sections of the peripheral nervous system are the the somatic system SNS and the autonomic nervous system ANS.

The somatic nervous system collects information from both the outside world and our internal organs and passes this on to the central nervous system. It also receives instructions from the central nervous system for big movements or small reactions to stimuli.

In short, this is what allows us to feel and move. The autonomic nervous system reacts more slowly because it is concerned with moods and feelings. It deals with many different emotions we feel, responds to threats and is also involved in major changes to the body such as during puberty or pregnancy.

The autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system ANS is split into two divisions: the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions. Therefore the autonomic nervous system ANS is the part of the nervous system which helps us react quickly and strongly to emergency situations.The major divisions of the brain are the forebrain or prosencephalonmidbrain mesencephalonand hindbrain rhombencephalon.

The forebrain is by far the largest brain division. It includes the cerebrumwhich accounts for about two-thirds of the brain's mass and covers most other brain structures. The forebrain consists of two subdivisions called the telencephalon and diencephalon. The olfactory and optic cranial nerves are found in the forebrain, as well as the lateral and third cerebral ventricles. A major component of the telencephalon is the cerebral cortexwhich is further divided into four lobes.

These lobes include the frontal lobes, parietal lobes, occipital lobes, and temporal lobes. The cerebral cortex contains folded bulges called gyri that create indentations in the brain. Functions of the cerebral cortex include processing sensory information, controlling motor functions, and performing higher-order functions such as reasoning and problem-solving.

The diencephalon is the region of the brain that relays sensory information and connects components of the endocrine system with the nervous system. The diencephalon regulates a number of functions including autonomic, endocrine, and motor functions. It also plays a major role in sensory perception.

Components of the diencephalon include:. The midbrain and hindbrain together compose the brainstem. The brainstem connects the spinal cord with the cerebrum. The midbrain regulates movement and aids in the processing of auditory and visual information.

Early Brain Development - Development, GCSE Psychology [AQA]

The oculomotor and trochlear cranial nerves are located in the midbrain. These nerves control eye and eyelid movement. The cerebral aqueduct, a canal that connects the third and fourth cerebral ventriclesis also located in the midbrain. Other components of the midbrain include:.

The hindbrain is composed of two subregions called the metencephalon and myelencephalon. Several cranial nerves are located in this brain region. The trigeminal, abducent, facial, and vestibulocochlear nerves are found in the metencephalon.

The glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves are located in the myelencephalon. The fourth cerebral ventricle also extends through this region of the brain.

The hindbrain assists in the regulation of autonomic functions, maintaining balance and equilibrium, movement coordination, and the relay of sensory information.

parts of the brain psychology gcse

The metencephalon is the upper region of the hindbrain and contains the pons and cerebellum. The pons is a component of the brainstem, which acts as a bridge connecting the cerebrum with the medulla oblongata and cerebellum. The pons assists in the control of autonomic functions, as well as states of sleep and arousal.

The cerebellum relays information between muscles and areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in motor control.The temporal lobe is the side portion of each hemisphere and is located near the temples. It is the primary target for auditory information, so is essential for understanding spoken language.

It is involved in advanced visual processing and plays a part in emotional and motivational behaviours. The occipital lobe is located at the back of the brain and is the main target for visual information. The frontal lobe is located at the front of the brain and contains the primary motor cortex and the pre-frontal cortex. The frontal lobe is mainly involved in planning of movements, recent memory, and some aspects of emotion such as aggression.

It is said to be crucial for planning and controlling thoughts and behaviour. The parietal lobe is located at the top of the brain between the frontal lobe and occipital lobe. It is responsible for bodily sensations and monitors all the information about eye, head and body positions before passing it on to the brain areas that control movement.

The cerebellum is a large hindbrain structure located below the occipital lobe. It contributes to the control of movement and is important for balance and coordination. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. They are joined by a layer of fibres called the Corpus Callosum. The two hemispheres can communicate while still working independently. There is some evidence that females have a thicker corpus callosum than males.

These chemicals are then grabbed by the receptors on the next nerve cell, which continues the process to pass the message on.

Some patients with epilepsy did not respond well to treatment so they were offered surgery to help reduce their seizures. The surgery involved cutting down the corpus callosum to separate the two hemispheres. Patients reported very few obvious effects of the surgery. Aim To find out the cognitive functions that are linked to each hemisphere in the brain.

parts of the brain psychology gcse

Nine had surgery recently whereas two had surgery some time before and had an excellent recovery. This way he could be sure that the information only entered either the left or right hemisphere. The patient then had to feel for a particular object hidden amongst others behind a screen to identify what they had apparently seen with their eyes. In the left image, the information is presented in the right visual field so it is sent to the left hemisphere.

Whereas, the information in the right image is being presented in the left visual field so is sent to the right hemisphere. On some occasions rather than saying the word or identifying the picture participants would be asked to point to an object. They were also given an unseen object and were asked to hold it in their hand and identify it. As you can see in the image on the right.

Divisions of the Brain: Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain

He was not able to say what he could see but he has correctly picked up the triangle in his left hand. When words were shown to the right visual field left hemisphere the participants could say the word they had seen. However, w hen words were shown to the left visual field right hemisphere the participants could not say the word they had seen.

When a picture or word was presented to the left visual field right hemisphere the participants could select an object that matched with their left hand but w hen a picture or word was presented to the right visual field left hemisphere the participants could not select an object that matched.Brain: The limbic system and the amygdala are both parts of the brain that may affect aggression.

The limbic system: A set of brain structures that lie in the middle of the brain, it is responsible for emotions needed for survival, like fear and aggression.

parts of the brain psychology gcse

The amygdala: A structure in the brain that recognises emotion, problems with the amygdala may cause aggression Some human case studies do offer some evidence that the amygdala might cause aggression.

King : Describes a case of a woman whose amygdala was electrically stimulated during an operation, she became threatening and verbally aggressive until the electrical current was turned off. Charles Whitman: In he killed 13 people, left behind a note asking doctors to examine his brain and they found out that he had a brain tumour pressing against his amygdala.

It is difficult to research the human brain biology because it is unethical to manipulate the human brain, meaning that we must use animals brains, which are similar but not similar enough for us to make a direct comparison. Animals are very different from humans. Limited direct proof. Testosterone is a male sex hormone that causes aggression, both men and women have it but usually men have more. Injecting animals with testosterone or removing the testes leads to increased or decreased levels of aggression.

parts of the brain psychology gcse

Castrating a male animal lowers its testosterone levels, making the animal less aggressive. But if the same animal is then injected with testosterone its aggression is restored to a level similar to that before the castration. Taking blood samples to humans, measuring testosterone levels and comparing this to their aggressiveness. Some correlation studies have found a relationship between high testosterone levels and questionnaire results showing greater reported aggression.

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